I love this little thing, it was really easy to get it started and playing with it but you will soon find out that there are not so much information regarding the Beaglebone yet.
Here is some information:
The Beagle Bone is a great step up from microcontrollers (such as AVR, PIC, ARM Cortex M3, 8051, Propeller, etc) to microcomputers. Unlike a microcontroller, where the FLASH, EEPROM, RAM, etc is all in one chip, a microcomputer has them separated out, like a classic computer such as a desktop or laptop machine. The Beagle Bone has a main processor core running at 700MHz, a chunk of 256M DDR RAM, and permanent storage onto a microSD card. This makes for a powerful machine, that has no problems running Linux, a webserver, Python, FTP clients, SSH, etc.
The Bone also has great accessories built in, such as onboard Ethernet with 10/100M connectivity, mini USB port with TTL serial converter, JTAG debugger for advanced hacking, USB A host port for connecting a hub/WiFi/etc, power management IC that keeps the board safe from a misplugged adapter, and tons of 0.1″ spaced breakouts
One of the powerful abilities of the Bone is that it has I2C, SPI, and GPIO at a hobbyist-friendly 3.3V level (instead of the more difficult to interface 1.8V) while also running complex applications such as a webserver. This allows for more complex projects that would tax an Arduino.
I noticed some thing was wrong when I should try to use Cloud9 and the Bonescript to play around with some of the in and outputs. I got some nasty compiler errors when I tried to run an node.js script, I found some information about the factory flashed image you get with the Beaglebone cane some times be damaged.
So I wanted to load a new image on the flash card but all information an how to do that was for linux. But i found this site where there ware an step by step guide for windows and also the latest image released with the revision A6 of the Beagelbone. After that everything worked good.
Some good links:
http://www.unixguide.net/linux/linuxshortcuts.shtml (General linux guide)