Arduino

My first run with the shapeoko

Posted in Arduino, CNC, GRBL, Milling on November 2nd, 2012 by x-firm – Comments Off

My first run with the shapeoko without any problem except that I have only one stepper controller. I hope I get the other two soon so i can start milling something.

First little project with the Beaglebone

Posted in Arduino, Beaglebone on July 23rd, 2012 by x-firm – Comments Off

I would like to connect an Arduino to the Beaglebone true its USB host port to let the Arduino do all low level stuff. I thought it could not be that hard :) and after some trying it turned out it wasn’t.

I loaded the example sketch ASCII table by Tom Igoe that prints out byte values in all possible formats true the serial port of the arduin. If i could get that to print out in the console or in some serial console for linux.

But first I did’nt know what the device file would be named for an usb to serial adapter on the Beagelbone. So I plugged in my Arduino and  used the command dmesg | tail to see what happened.


root@beaglebone:~# dmesg | tail
[  712.471055] usb 1-1: SerialNumber: 64932343738351312182
[  712.471901] cdc_acm 1-1:1.0: ttyACM0: USB ACM device
[  961.711404] usb 1-1: USB disconnect, device number 5
[  963.279604] usb 1-1: new full-speed USB device number 6 using musb-hdrc
[  963.420999] usb 1-1: New USB device found, idVendor=2341, idProduct=0001
[  963.421019] usb 1-1: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=220
[  963.421032] usb 1-1: Product: Arduino Uno
[  963.421043] usb 1-1: Manufacturer: Arduino (www.arduino.cc)
[  963.421054] usb 1-1: SerialNumber: 64932343738351312182
[  963.421916] cdc_acm 1-1:1.0: ttyACM0: USB ACM device
root@beaglebone:~#


So now when I know that I need to communicate with it and I found out that there are an serial console program called minicom in the Ångström distribution that I use on my Beaglebone. It seamed easy to use so I started up minicom in setup mode by the following command

root@beaglebone:~# minicom -s

Than I change the settings in minicom to use ttyACM0 as port and also change the boud rate to 9600.

Then I exit the setup menu and as soon I press the Arduino reset button it prints out the ASCII table as it should.
I think for the next step I will try to get an node.js script talking to the arduino and print out the result to the console.

I googled some and found this sites about communication with an arduino true node.js

And also an serial library for node.js that most use

New code for the motor part of the X-bot

Posted in Arduino, Processing, Self balancing robot on April 22nd, 2011 by x-firm – Comments Off

I have recoded the motor part and added the encoder for the other motor and made a PID for each motor that takes the output from the current PID. This for trying to get the two motors to behave equal. The original PID is only looking on the right motor encoder as before. But I’m calculating the current speed in pulses/10ms for each motor and then using that and the output from the old PID to control the motors for a requested speed in pulses/10ms..

That feels better than just sending a value of 0-255 that has no connection to the speed of the motor that are depending on the surface and battery level.

I have made a new sketch for the bot and a GUI to make settings and testing the motor PIDs you can download it from this links:
Motor_PID_Enc_v2 (Bot code)
Motor_PID_Enc_v2 (GUI)

Nice balancing bot controlled by a WiiMote

Posted in Arduino, Self balancing robot on April 6th, 2011 by x-firm – Comments Off

Found a nice robot that was built and programed using parts of the Balancing Robot For Dummies guide. A nice looking bot..

The most interesting is that he has the WiiMote connected directly to the Arduino true a USB HID shield.. Instead of having both the bot and the WiiMote connected to a computer that acts as a gateway..

More information here..

Nice drawings of the Arduino UNO and Mega 2560

Posted in Arduino on January 10th, 2011 by x-firm – Be the first to comment

Calibrating/testing the motors and encoders..

Posted in Arduino, Processing, Self balancing robot on November 24th, 2010 by x-firm – Be the first to comment

I started to check the differences of the motors by using the encoders to try to see the distance the motors turned in a constant time and get a factor for the diff. I drive the motors in both directions in four different speeds 50, 100, 200, 250..

I made a sketch for the Arduino and a GUI sketch in processing based on the Balancing Bot GUI, and thought that this cant be so hard to do just see the diff. and calculate a factor for the faster motor but that was not the case..

The first run gave me the results like in the image below, where the motors behaved very different in forward to backward motion. When going forward for a time constant(2000ms) and then sending the drive_motor(0) the motor continued running in free spin for a short while. But when running backward the motor brakes for a short while.

Click for larger image

Speed   L           R

255    7662   :  7413

-255   -5516  :  -5541

150    6582   :  6386

-150   -4901  :  -4872

50     3342     :  3291

-50    -2747   :  -2705

As you can see the behavior is very different in the two directions..

I changed the drive_motor function like below and tried again and the result was better but is I going about this in the right way?

int Drive_Motor(int torque)  {
  if (torque > 0)  {
    // drive motors forward
    digitalWrite(InA_R, LOW);
    digitalWrite(InB_R, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(InA_L, LOW);
    digitalWrite(InB_L, HIGH);
    forward = true;
  }else if(torque < 0) {     // drive motors backward
    digitalWrite(InB_R, LOW);
    digitalWrite(InA_R, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(InB_L, LOW);
    digitalWrite(InA_L, HIGH);
    torque = abs(torque);
    forward = false;
  }else{
    if(forward){
      digitalWrite(InA_R, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(InB_R, LOW);
      digitalWrite(InA_L, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(InB_L, LOW);
    }else{
      digitalWrite(InA_R, LOW);
      digitalWrite(InB_R, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(InA_L, LOW);
      digitalWrite(InB_L, HIGH);
    }
  }
  //if(torque>5) map(torque,0,255,30,255);
    analogWrite(PWM_R,torque * motorOffsetR);
    analogWrite(PWM_L,torque * motorOffsetL);
    Serial.println(torque,DEC);
}

Now it looks like the Arduino and the motor controller is behaving in the same way in both directions. I need to take some more readings to see if the differences that are left are linear in some way.. It feels like there are a difference between the motors in both directions but also that both motors are going faster forward, and that I think is created by the motor control??..

See image below..

Click for larger image

Heres the Arduino sketch I used..

Heres the Processing sketch I used..

The main part of the Arduino sketch:

// KasBot Encoder test V1  -  Main module       basic version, angles in Quids, 10 bit ADC
/*
  Description:
  The KasBot Encoder test Vx is made for checking that the encoder signal workes and
  to tune the diffrenses from your motors..

  This code is aimed for the Encoder test GUI v1.0

  Version log:

  v1.0  -

*/

#define   InA_R          6                      // INA right motor pin
#define   InB_R          7                      // INB right motor pin
#define   PWM_R          10                     // PWM right motor pin
#define   InA_L          8                      // INA left motor pin
#define   InB_L          9                      // INB left motor pin
#define   PWM_L          11                     // PWM left motor pin
#define encodPinA_R      3                      // encoder A pin left motor
#define encodPinB_R      5                      // encoder B pin right motor
#define encodPinA_L      2                      // encoder A pin left motor
#define encodPinB_L      12                     // encoder B pin right motor

#define LOOPTIME         100                    // PID loop time
#define FORWARD          1                      // direction of rotation
#define BACKWARD         2                      // direction of rotation

#define DELAY_TIME       5000                   //Time to delay after motion
#define RUN_TIME         2000                   //Time to run motor

int speeds[] = {50, 100, 200, 255};
int speedIndex = 0;

int STD_LOOP_TIME  =  9;             

int lastLoopTime = STD_LOOP_TIME;
int lastLoopUsefulTime = STD_LOOP_TIME;
unsigned long loopStartTime = 0;

unsigned long delayStart = 0;

long count_R = 0;                                 // rotation counter right motor
long count_L = 0;                                 // rotation counter left motor

boolean frwMotion = true;                         // motor moves

void setup() {
  pinMode(InA_R, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(InB_R, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(PWM_R, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(InA_L, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(InB_L, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(PWM_L, OUTPUT);

  pinMode(encodPinA_R, INPUT);
  pinMode(encodPinB_R, INPUT);
  digitalWrite(encodPinA_R, HIGH);                      // turn on pullup resistor
  digitalWrite(encodPinB_R, HIGH);
  attachInterrupt(1, rencoder_R, FALLING);

  pinMode(encodPinA_L, INPUT);
  pinMode(encodPinB_L, INPUT);
  digitalWrite(encodPinA_L, HIGH);                      // turn on pullup resistor
  digitalWrite(encodPinB_L, HIGH);
  attachInterrupt(0, rencoder_L, FALLING);

  Serial.begin(19200);
}

void loop() {
// ********* Simple motor test for serial monitor ***********************

  //motorDebugForSerialMonitor();

// *********************** Motor drive **********************************
  //Turns motors on for RUN_TIME and then off for DELAY_TIME
  if((millis() - delayStart) <= RUN_TIME){
    if(frwMotion){
      Drive_Motor(speeds[speedIndex]);
    }else{
      Drive_Motor((speeds[speedIndex] * (-1)));
    }
  }else if((millis() - delayStart) > RUN_TIME){
    Drive_Motor(0);
  }

  if((millis() - delayStart) >= (RUN_TIME + DELAY_TIME)){
    delayStart = millis();
    if(frwMotion){
      frwMotion = false;
    }else{
      speedIndex++;
      frwMotion = true;
    }
    clearCounts();
    if(speedIndex >= 3) speedIndex=0;
  }

 // *********************** print Debug info *****************************
  serialIn_GUI();       //Processing information from a pc
  serialOut_GUI();	//Sending information to pc for debug

 // *********************** loop timing control **************************
  lastLoopUsefulTime = millis()-loopStartTime;
  if(lastLoopUsefulTime<STD_LOOP_TIME)         delay(STD_LOOP_TIME-lastLoopUsefulTime);
  lastLoopTime = millis() - loopStartTime;
  loopStartTime = millis();

}

void clearCounts(){
  count_L = 0;
  count_R = 0;
}

void motorDebugForSerialMonitor()
{
  Drive_Motor(255);
  delay(2000);
  Drive_Motor(0);
  delay(500);
  Serial.print(count_L,DEC);
  Serial.print(" : ");
  Serial.println(count_R,DEC);
  clearCounts();
  delay(4500);

  Drive_Motor(-255);
  delay(2000);
  Drive_Motor(0);
  delay(500);
  Serial.print(count_L,DEC);
  Serial.print(" : ");
  Serial.println(count_R,DEC);
  clearCounts();
  delay(4500);

  Drive_Motor(150);
  delay(2000);
  Drive_Motor(0);
  delay(500);
  Serial.print(count_L,DEC);
  Serial.print(" : ");
  Serial.println(count_R,DEC);
  clearCounts();
  delay(4500);

  Drive_Motor(-150);
  delay(2000);
  Drive_Motor(0);
  delay(500);
  Serial.print(count_L,DEC);
  Serial.print(" : ");
  Serial.println(count_R,DEC);
  clearCounts();
  delay(4500);

  Drive_Motor(50);
  delay(2000);
  Drive_Motor(0);
  delay(500);
  Serial.print(count_L,DEC);
  Serial.print(" : ");
  Serial.println(count_R,DEC);
  clearCounts();
  delay(4500);

  Drive_Motor(-50);
  delay(2000);
  Drive_Motor(0);
  delay(2000);
  Serial.print(count_L,DEC);
  Serial.print(" : ");
  Serial.println(count_R,DEC);
  clearCounts();
  delay(4500);

  while(true){delay(100);}
}

New version of the Balancing Bot GUI

Posted in Arduino, Processing, Self balancing robot on November 17th, 2010 by x-firm – Be the first to comment

New version of the bot code:

KasBotV1
KasBotV1.2_Serial (Use this one when using the Balancing Bot GUI)

New version of the GUI:

BalancingBotGUI v1.2

Currently you will see trends for the following values:
- ACC_X, _Y, GYR_Y
- actAngle, ACC_angle
- pTerm, iTerm, dTerm
- drive

You can also see and change the following values:
- setPoint
- K
- Kp
- Ki
- Kd

Code for KasBot V1

Posted in Arduino, Self balancing robot on November 7th, 2010 by x-firm – Be the first to comment

The Balancing Robot for dummies thread have bean a great help for me to make a jump start in this type of projects. The least I can do is to host the code for this great robot and here it is:

KasBot V1 complete code file:
K_BotV1.rar

KasBot V1 is fully functional and should balance for ever
Just modify the code according to your own gyro sensitivity

If you want to use the Balancing Bot GUI, then use the files below:

KasBot V1 serial complete code file:
K_BotV1_serial.rar (modified to work with the Balancing Bot GUI)

GUI Sketch for Processing IDE:

Download and unzip the folder in your sketch directory. Change the serial port to the corresponding for you computer…

Complete sketch

Currently you will see trends for the following values:
- ACC_X, _Y, GYR_Y
- actAngle, ACC_angle
- pTerm, iTerm, dTerm
- drive

More info on the thread at the Arduino forum…

Success with sensor fusing using kalman filter…

Posted in Arduino, Processing, Self balancing robot on October 30th, 2010 by x-firm – Be the first to comment

I have been reading the Balancing robot for dummies thread and thanks to all good posts there and all answers on my stupid questions. It wasn’t so hard to get it to work..

Here is a video showing the filtered angel in the top and the unfiltered angel from the acc. in the lower part of a sketch made in processing.

The sketch is from -> http://wiki.processing.org/w/Tom_Igoe_Interview

The jig is now finished

Posted in Arduino, Self balancing robot on October 28th, 2010 by x-firm – Be the first to comment

I have finished my jig so I can easy make some tests and the put it away. Time for a project like this is very limited.

I added a 4×20 LCD to output some debug information in the test phase..

I will start trying to get the accelerometer and the gyro to work..
I will wait with the motor part until I get the sensor input like I want. I also need to get some good battery and some wireless connection to the robot and the computer…